Publications

Literature
Good Regulation and Public Policies Evaluation: selected literature
Carrigan C.; Febrizio M; Shapiro S. (2020)
Regulating Agencies: Using Regulatory Instruments as a Pathway to Improve BenefitCost Analysis
Scholars of regulation generally view the procedures that agencies must follow when promulgating rules as instruments by which political principals control bureaucratic agents. Much like political principals attempt to use procedural checks to constrain regulatory agencies actions, these same agencies employ various regulatory instruments to influence the decisions of private agents, especially firms. Despite the parallel nature of these principal-agent problems, few studies, if any, have looked at whether lessons from one can be used to inform the other. In this paper, we draw analogies between benefit-cost analysis (BCA)—a procedural control employed in the regulatory process—and three regulatory instruments that have similarities to BCA—performance standards, information disclosure requirements, and management-based regulation. We use lessons from research on the effectiveness of regulatory instruments to make predictions regarding the efficacy of BCA in various situations. Just as different regulatory instruments are appropriate for different regulatory contexts, the pathways by which BCA attempts to encourage better regulation may not all be applicable in every circumstance. We argue that such mutual exclusivity should inform how requirements for BCA are designed and that BCA’s emphasis on systematic analysis—the pathway most closely resembling management-based regulation—may offer the most promise for encouraging better rules.
Documents
Big Data and Regulation (selected literature)
AGCM, AGCOM, Garante Privacy (2020)
Survey on Big Data
Al termine di una intensa e proficua collaborazione, è stato pubblicato oggi il rapporto finale dell’indagine conoscitiva sui Big Data condotta congiuntamente dall’Autorità per le Garanzie nelle Comunicazioni, dall’Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato e dal Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali. Da tre prospettive diverse e complementari, l’indagine ha approfondito, anche attraverso audizioni e richieste di informazioni a imprese, associazioni di categoria ed esperti della materia, i cambiamenti derivanti dai Big Data sugli utenti che forniscono i dati, sulle aziende che li utilizzano e, dunque, sui mercati. Ciò anche al fine di cogliere appieno le possibili sinergie tra le tre Autorità e identificare gli strumenti più appropriati per eventuali interventi. Negli ultimi anni i dati hanno assunto importanza via via crescente nell’organizzazione delle attività di produzione e di scambio, a tal punto da poter essere considerati, oltre che la proiezione della persona nel mondo digitale, anche una risorsa economica a tutti gli effetti, anzi la risorsa di gran lunga più importante in molti settori. Infatti, grazie agli avanzamenti nell’ambito dell’Information e Communication Technology (ICT), le organizzazioni tendono a raccogliere dati di qualsiasi tipo, ad elaborarli in tempo reale per migliorare i propri processi decisionali e a memorizzarli in maniera permanente al fine di poterli riutilizzare in futuro o di estrarne nuova conoscenza. La creazione di dati sta seguendo un processo esponenziale: nell’anno 2018 il volume totale di dati creati nel mondo è stato di 28 zettabyte (ZB), registrando un aumento di più di dieci volte rispetto al 2011: si prevede che entro il 2025 il volume complessivo dei dati arriverà fino a 163 ZB. Questa espansione, guidata dall’affermazione delle piattaforme on-line, subirà un’ulteriore accelerazione con la connessione tra oggetti e le applicazioni 5G. In questo quadro si pongono nuove sfide: la centralità del dato, anche come bene economico e l’ importanza della sua tutela come diritto fondamentale della persona; l’impatto della profilazione algoritmica e delle piattaforme on-line sul grado di concorrenza in vecchi e in nuovi mercati rilevanti; l’effetto del programmatic advertising sulla qualità dell’informazione e sulle modalità di diffusione e acquisizione della stessa; la tutela e la promozione del pluralismo on-line in un contesto informativo esposto a strategie di disinformazione e di hatespeech; la necessità di garantire trasparenza e scelte effettive al consumatore, con particolare attenzione alla tutela dei minori, in relazione alla consenso circa l’uso del proprio dato; la protezione del dato personale anche in ambiti non attualmente coperti dal GDPR; la definizione di politiche di educazione in relazione all’uso del dato. La presente Indagine conoscitiva è articolata in 5 capitoli e un capitolo conclusivo. Il capitolo 1 introduce i temi oggetto dell’Indagine e fornisce una definizione e una descrizione delle caratteristiche dei Big Data. Nel capitolo 2 vengono riportate le principali questioni emerse nel corso delle audizioni e dai contributi dei partecipanti all’Indagine e i riflessi sull’operatività delle imprese italiane. Il capitolo 3 riporta le considerazioni dell’AGCOM su come il fenomeno dei Big Data incida nel settore delle comunicazioni elettroniche e dei media. Il capitolo 4 riporta le considerazioni del Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali sul possibile impatto dei Big Data sul diritto alla protezione dei dati personali e sulle misure e cautele da adottare; il capitolo 5 quelle dell’AGCM sull’utilizzo dei Big Data e le relative implicazioni di natura antitrust e di tutela del consumatore. Infine, nel capitolo conclusivo sono descritte le linee guida e raccomandazioni di policy indirizzate al legislatore. Tra queste, l’impegno assunto dalle tre Autorità a definire un meccanismo di collaborazione permanente in relazione agli interventi e allo studio dell’impatto dei big data su imprese, consumatori e cittadini.
Literature
Good Regulation and Public Policies Evaluation: selected literature
Van Loo R. (2019)
The New Gatekeepers: Private Firms as Public Enforcers
The world’s largest businesses must routinely police other businesses. By public mandate, Facebook monitors app developers’ privacy safeguards, Citibank audits call centers for deceptive sales practices, and Exxon reviews offshore oil platforms’ environmental standards. Scholars have devoted significant attention to how policy makers deploy other private sector enforcers, such as certification bodies, accountants, lawyers, and other periphery “gatekeepers.” However, the literature has yet to explore the emerging regulatory conscription of large firms at the center of the economy. This Article examines the rise of the enforcer-firm through case studies of the industries that are home to the most valuable companies, in technology, banking, oil, and pharmaceuticals. Over the past two decades, administrative agencies have used legal rules, guidance documents, and court orders to mandate that private firms in these and other industries perform the duties of a public regulator. More specifically, firms must write rules in their contracts that reserve the right to inspect third parties. When they find violations, they must pressure or punish the wrongdoer. This form of governance has important intellectual and policy implications. It imposes more of a public duty on the firm, alters corporate governance, and may even reshape business organizations. It also gives resource-strapped regulators promising tools. If designed poorly, however, the enforcer-firm will create an expansive area of unaccountable authority. Any comprehensive account of the firm or regulation must give a prominent role to the administrative state’s newest gatekeepers.
Documents
Foreign countries - selected documents
Finnish Government (2019)
Framework for innovation-friendly regulation
Radical innovations and break-through technologies are desperately needed in solving to-day’s difficult societal challenges, such as those created by climate change or ageing demographics. However, addressing complex societal challenges requires elaborate systemic planning, determined investments and often also, visionary and brave decisions by the legislators and regulators. While radical innovation may bring much needed economic benefits and solutions to pressing societal challenges, they can also generate new risks and ethical dilemmas. Hence, today’s legislators are faced with difficult questions in trying to foresee an optimal legal framework, which would sufficiently leave space for and encourage new solutions, but at the same time would ensure safe conditions and fair benefits to everyone. In light of the above, increased attention is paid to developing innovation-friendly regulatory approaches and practices. The introduction of European Commission’s Innovation Principle, as well as several national initiatives (such as regulatory sandboxes and regulation roadmaps), are good examples of such development. So far, there has not been a common definition, nor a comprehensive framework to grasp the different aspects of innovation-friendly regulation approaches and practices. Developing such framework has been one of the main objectives in Finnish government commissioned study on “Impacts of regulation on innovation and new markets”. This Policy Brief presents some first findings and introduces a draft framework for innovation-friendly regulation.
Documents
Big Data and Regulation (selected literature)
NESTA (2019)
Decision-making in the Age of the Algorithm
Frontline practitioners in the public sector – from social workers to police to custody officers – make important decisions every day about people’s lives. Operating in the context of a sector grappling with how to manage rising demand, coupled with diminishing resources, frontline practitioners are being asked to make very important decisions quickly and with limited information. To do this, public sector organisations are turning to new technologies to support decision-making, in particular, predictive analytics tools, which use machine learning algorithms to discover patterns in data and make predictions. While many guides exist around ethical AI design, there is little guidance on how to support a productive human-machine interaction in relation to AI. This report aims to fill this gap by focusing on the issue of human-machine interaction. How people are working with tools is significant because, simply put, for predictive analytics tools to be effective, frontline practitioners need to use them well. It encourages public sector organisations to think about how people feel about predictive analytics tools – what they’re fearful of, what they’re excited about, what they don’t understand. Based on insights drawn from an extensive literature review, interviews with frontline practitioners, and discussions with experts across a range of fields, the guide also identifies three key principles that play a significant role in supporting a constructive human-machine relationship: context, understanding, and agency.