Publications

Literature
Good Regulation and Public Policies Evaluation: selected literature
Baldwin R. and Cave M. (2021)
Taming the Corporation: How to Regulate for Success
Virtually all enterprises are regulated in a host of ways and regulation is crucial not merely to economic success but to protecting consumer, worker, environmental, and an array of other interests. Regulation, though, is often seen negatively: as a tiresome interference with entrepreneurial activity. This negative vision is unhelpful in addressing business and other needs for productive forms of regulation. Taming the Corporation offers an alternative, positive, vision of regulation. It stresses the role of good regulation in allowing businesses to flourish, serve markets effectively, and respect broader interests. This paves the way for more productive regulatory designs. It looks at the characteristics of good regulation and provides businesses, consumers, and citizens with the arguments that they need when they push for regulatory controls that serve their needs. Understandings of regulation are also served by looking at the potentially positive roles of control strategies ranging from ‘command laws’ to ‘nudges’. The book, in addition, provides a more detailed examination of three key regulatory challenges in the modern world: regulating for sustainability; addressing global warming; and controlling digital platforms. Taming the Corporation offers a new vision of regulation—as a positive way to steer corporate power in productive and useful directions. It turns the traditional regulation discussion on its head. Regulatory theories are discussed but the book also uses numerous case examples to illustrate and address real life challenges.
Documents
EU: selected document
European Commission (2020)
AI Watch - Artificial Intelligence in public services
This report is published in the context of AI Watch, the European Commission knowledge service to monitor the development, uptake and impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Europe, launched in December 2018 as part of the Coordinated Plan on the Development and Use of AI Made in Europe. The report presents the results of the mapping of the use of AI in support of public services in the EU. The analysis serves to contribute landscaping the current state of the art in the field, and provide a preliminary overview of Member States efforts to integrate AI in their government operations and adopt AI-enabled innovations in the public sector. From the analysis it emerges that the interest on the use of AI within governments to support redesigning governance processes and policy-making mechanisms, as well as to improve public services delivery and engagement with citizens is growing. Governments across the EU are exploring the potential of AI use to improve policy design and evaluation, while reorganising the internal management of public administrations at all levels. Indeed, when used in a responsible way, the combination of new, large data sources with advanced machine learning algorithms could radically improve the operating methods of the public sector, thus paving the way to pro-active public service delivery models and relieving resource constrained organisations from mundane and repetitive tasks.
Documents
EU: selected document
EPRS (2020)
Regulating digital gatekeepers: Background on the future digital markets act
The EU has unveiled an ambitious plan to regulate online platforms, and the European Commission is proposing to introduce ex ante regulation to ensure that markets characterised by large platforms acting as digital gatekeepers remain fair and competitive for innovators, businesses, and new market entrants. The introduction of an ex ante regulatory framework that could limit online platforms' commercial freedom and give wide-ranging enforcement powers to regulators would be a far-reaching step. Against this background, this briefing explains the rationale for regulating digital gatekeepers in the EU and provides an overview of the key policy questions currently under discussion. Recent reports and studies have shown how a few large platforms have the ability to apply a range of practices that raise significant competition issues. The limitation of competition law – essentially applied ex-post after the anti-competitive practices have been implemented – has sparked a debate on whether EU competition rules are still fit for purpose and whether such platforms should not instead be regulated ex ante so as to provide upfront clarity about what behaviour towards users and competitors is acceptable. In this respect, the policy discussion focuses on a number of issues, in particular, how to identify online gatekeepers that should be subject to ex ante regulation, what conduct should be outlawed for those gatekeepers, what obligations should be placed on them (such as data portability and interoperability), and how such innovative regulations should be enforced. Finally, the briefing highlights the initial views of a number of stakeholders.
Documents
EU: selected document
European Commission (2020)
Exploring Digital Government Transformation in the EU - Understanding public sector innovation in a data-driven society
This report presents the final results of the research “Exploring Digital Government Transformation in the EU: understanding public sector innovation in a data-driven society”, in short DigiGov. After introducing the design and methodology of the study, the report provides a summary of the findings of the comprehensive analysis of the state of the art in the field, conducted reviewing a vast body of scientific literature, policy documents and practitioners generated reports in a broad range of disciplines and policy domains, with a focus on the EU. The scope and key dimensions underlying the development of the DigiGov-F conceptual framework are then presented. This is a theory-informed heuristic instrument to help mapping the effects of Digital Government Transformation and able to support defining change strategies within the institutional settings of public administration. Further, the report provides an overview of the findings of the empirical case studies conducted, and employing experimental or quasi-experimental components, to test and refine the conceptual framework proposed, while gathering evidence on impacts of Digital Government Transformation, through identifying real-life drivers and barriers in diverse Member States and policy domains. The report concludes outlining future research and policy recommendations, as well as depicting possible scenarios for future Digital Government Transformation, developed as a result of a dedicated foresight policy lab. This was conducted as part of the expert consultation and stakeholder engagement process that accompanied all the phases of the research implementation. Insights generated from the study also serve to pave the way for further empirical research and policy experimentation, and to contribute to the policy debate on how to shape Digital Europe at the horizon 2040.